How Type 2 Diabetes Complications Affects Men and Women

Complications of Type 2 Diabetes seriously affect men and women. If you suspect you have type 2 diabetes, you need to get tested for it. 

Although type 2 diabetes is very uncomfortable and leads to many lifestyle changes, it is nevertheless very important that you are aware of the condition so that you can cope with it and not cause further damage to your health. 

Continuing diabetes without treatment or control can lead to a host of serious problems as excess sugar in your system damages nerves and organs. 

Among other things, this can lead to loss of vision, tingling, and ultimately loss of limb mobility, obesity, organ failure, and more.

Type 2 Diabetes Complications

The first step to diagnosing type 2 diabetes is to identify the symptoms associated with diabetes. This can be tricky because many of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes can be confused with a number of other conditions.

However, there are a few basic things to look out for if you suspect you have diabetes. 

Fatigue may be the first symptom. This may sound surprising since there is actually an excess of glucose in your system that provides energy, but it actually makes sense when you consider that all this glucose is in your blood and stays in it. 

In other words, you are using insulin incorrectly in order to use this sugar, which means that it does not give you energy. 

As such, you are likely to feel lethargic and tired if you have type 2 diabetes and may also suffer from some other signs of low blood sugar, such as shaking. It is unlikely to improve after eating a high-calorie food routinely.

Of course, fatigue can be a symptom of many other things, so this alone is not definitive proof of type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Risk Factors

The risk factors for diabetes will depend on the type of diabetes. There are basically three types of diabetes, such as type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. 

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are still being studied. However, some of the factors that increase the risk of type 1 diabetes are listed below.

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes:

  • Family history: Family history is recognized as an important risk factor for type 1 diabetes.

  • Infection or illness: Some viral infections can damage the pancreas. Which can lead to a lack of insulin in your body.

  • Nutritional factors: Poor diet can lead to obesity, which is also another risk factor for diabetes. Improper diet and lifestyle are the main causes of obesity.

  • Geography: There may be an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in some countries.

  • Other Autoimmune Diseases: Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to autoimmune diseases. Other autoimmune diseases like Graves’ disease, Addison’s disease, etc. also increase the likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes:

  • Family history: In type 2, family history is considered an important risk factor for diabetes.

  • Age: Type 2 diabetes increases with age. As they get older, people may exercise less and gain weight.

  • Overweight: Due to obesity, adolescents also develop diabetes.

  • Lack of activity: Physical inactivity is also another risk factor.

  • Unhealthy diet: Poor diet is another risk factor for diabetes.

  • Gestational diabetes during pregnancy: Gestational diabetes during pregnancy increases the likelihood of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

  • High blood pressure: Blood pressure over 140/90.

Risk factors for gestational diabetes:

  • Family history: Family history is also another risk factor for gestational diabetes.

  • Age: Older women are at increased risk.

  • Poor nutrition: Poor nutrition during pregnancy.

  • Weight: Obesity or being overweight can lead to gestational diabetes.

What Causes Diabetes

Diabetes is caused by two main factors, including genetics and lifestyle. People can be genetically predisposed to diabetes. If a family member has diabetes, that person is more likely to develop diabetes in the future. 

For lifestyle reasons, someone who leads an unhealthy lifestyle may also be at risk of developing diabetes. 

Factors such as being overweight, eating unhealthy foods, and exercising frequently can increase your risk of developing diabetes.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Know the signs and symptoms of diabetes so that you can spot it early. Once you detect the signs and symptoms of diabetes, you can have a blood glucose test to detect diabetes.

  • 1) Excessive thirst: Excessive thirst and hunger are symptoms of diabetes. Frequent urination makes you drink more water. If insulin doesn’t work properly, you may feel hungry.

  • 2) Frequent urination: Frequent urination is the most common cause of diabetes.

  • 3) Unexplained weight loss: weight loss is sudden, without trying. Unexplained weight loss, especially in women, is one of the common symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

  • 4) Healing Power: Small wounds or infections may take longer to heal. It is also the most common symptom of diabetes.

  • 5) Fatigue: Feeling more tired than usual. Diabetics also develop irritability due to lack of energy.

  • 6) Blurred vision: Diabetes destroys the blood vessels in the eyes.

  • 7) Dry mouth: Dry mouth is also a sign of type 2 diabetes.

  • 8) Numbness or tingling: Numbness and tingling in the feet and hands due to nerve damage.

  • 9) Infections: Yeast infections, gum infections and vaginal yeast infections in women are symptoms of diabetes. If these infections occur more frequently, get a diabetes test.

  • 10) Itchy skin: An itchy sensation is also a sign of diabetes.

These are some of the symptoms of diabetes. Don’t assume you have diabetes if you have these symptoms. 

These are just the symptoms that many diabetics have. If these symptoms persist for an extended period, just check your diabetes. Detect early to prevent or treat complications.

Complications of Diabetes

Uncontrolled high blood sugar levels can cause serious health complications. People with diabetes may have to deal with short or long-term complications. 

Even people with well-managed diabetes can also cope with some types of complications.

Consistently high blood glucose levels can affect several different parts of the body, such as the heart, kidneys, eyes, skin, legs, and feet.

Complications of diabetes mellitus are:

  • Eye problems: Diabetes can damage the tiny blood vessels that supply the retina. If diabetes affects tiny blood vessels in the eye, your vision may deteriorate and sometimes blind.  Therefore, diabetics should have their eyes checked regularly.

  • Nerve damage: High sugar levels damage small blood vessels. Diabetic neuropathy is a condition caused by damage to small blood vessels.

  • Kidney disease: The kidneys contain small blood vessels. Diabetes can damage the small blood vessels in the kidneys and can sometimes lead to kidney failure.

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

  • Heart disease: Diabetes can also damage the heart’s large blood vessels. Thus, people with prediabetes or diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease.

  • Injury to the foot: Diabetes can cause nerve damage, which can lead to various complications of the foot.

  • Skin conditions: Skin diseases associated with diabetes are common. If you have diabetes, find and treat skin problems before they develop into a serious problem.

  • Complications of pregnancy: High blood sugar levels during pregnancy can cause problems during childbirth. Gestational diabetes during pregnancy increases the likelihood of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

  • High blood pressure: People with diabetes have high blood pressure, which can lead to heart disease, stroke, and other problems.

  • Hearing problems: Hearing problems are common in diabetics.

  • Gum Disease: Diabetes can cause mouth problems. Uncontrolled diabetes can cause problems with teeth and gums.

Chronic Eye Complications of Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes

The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing all over the world, and more and more people are developing diabetes. 

Because uncontrolled diabetes can lead to many avoidable chronic complications, most doctors would like their patients to control their blood sugar levels. 

Research has shown that early diagnosis and interventions are imperative to reduce the severity of these chronic complications.

Blindness is one of the most serious complications of diabetes. According to research, diabetics are twenty-five times more likely to develop eye problems than people in general. 

Three main types of ocular complications:

  • 1. Diabetic retinopathy: With this eye problem, high blood sugar affects the nervous tissue of the eye. It is one of the leading causes of adult blindness every year. Diabetic retinopathy is asymptomatic in most cases at treatable stages. If you have type 2 diabetes, the most reasonable way to prevent this vision problem is to consult an ophthalmologist regularly.

  • 2. Cataract: Diabetic patients are 1.6 times more likely to develop cataracts in one or both eyes than other people. People with diabetes mellitus are most likely to develop snowflake cataracts, which usually resolve with good blood sugar control. However, there are others who develop persistent cataracts that require cataract removal to restore vision.

  • 3. Glaucoma: A complication of glaucoma is caused by increased pressure in the eye. Diabetics have two types of glaucoma: a) Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common form of glaucoma among diabetics. b) Another is neovascular glaucoma, a more severe form of glaucoma that usually occurs concurrently with diabetic retinopathy.

In the event of any of these complications, early diagnosis and emergency surgery are necessary to save your eye from fully developing these problems.

Type 2 Diabetes – Short and Long-Term Complications

Various complications are associated with diabetes. Since the main cause of diabetes is directly related to blood and its effects on our bodies, it is clear that prolonged high blood sugar levels can lead to complications. 

By keeping your blood sugar as high as possible, you can avoid many of these complications. 

There are two main types of complications arising from the disease. Some of these complications are immediate and short-term, while some develop after a long period of low blood sugar levels.

Reversible complications are short-term. Long-term problems can be difficult to reverse. 

However, you can prevent them altogether by following a healthy and effective diet and taking proper care of yourself. 

If your current lifestyle does not allow you to control your high blood sugar levels, you can work closely with your doctor to constantly monitor your blood sugar levels. 

In any situation, you will not want to face the further deterioration in health that is often due to type 2 diabetes, if you can help.

Many of the long-term complications of type 2 diabetes, including nerve kidney disease and vision problems, are caused by years of higher than normal blood glucose / sugar levels. 

It can be difficult to understand the importance of taking the necessary steps to prevent what causes diabetes complications because they seem so distant. 

However, if you have a perspective, you will understand how important it is to stick to a strong diabetes diet. 

Along with a healthy diet, regular exercise can help keep your blood sugar levels at the right level. 

Unfortunately, many people live with type 2 diabetes for years before they are diagnosed, which gives them less time to deal with it.

Diabetes Tests

Long-term diabetes can cause serious health problems, so it is best to diagnose diabetes as soon as possible.

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

Blood test for diabetes:

Hemoglobin A1C test: – A1C test, also called glycated hemoglobin test. This test is used to measure your average blood glucose level over the past 6-12 weeks.

  • A1C level less than 5.7% means normal. 
  • 5.7% to 6.4% means prediabetes. 
  • More than 6.5% means diabetes.

Random Blood Sugar Test: – This test is done at any time of the day. If the result is higher than 200 mg / dL, it means diabetes.

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test: – This test measures fasting blood glucose. Fasting plasma glucose less than 100 mg / dL means normal. 100 mg / dl to 125.99 mg / dl means prediabetes. 126 mg / dL or higher means diabetes

OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test): – It measures your blood glucose level. This is a two-hour test. This test is used to measure blood glucose levels before and 2 hours after drinking a sweet liquid.

  • If the result is less than 140 mg / dL, then normal. 
  • 140 to 199.9 mg / dL means prediabetes. 
  • 200 mg / dL or higher means diabetes.

Urinalysis for diabetesA blood test is the best way to measure your body’s glucose levels. Urinalysis is also used to determine type 1 diabetes. If ketone bodies are in the urine, it means diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Treatments and Drugs

Diabetes is a lifelong illness; there is no permanent cure for diabetes. There are treatments and medications for diabetes. 

Usually, many of them manage their diabetes on their own through diet and exercise. With the proper diabetes care and medicines, diabetics need to control their diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. 

Insulin and oral medications can play a role in diabetes management, and people with diabetes need to regularly monitor their blood sugar levels.

Managing diabetes with a healthy diet and maintaining a healthy weight is the best solution for people with diabetes.

Treatment for type 1 and type 2 diabetes:

Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise. Treatment for type 2 diabetes includes non-insulin medications, insulin, weight loss, or dietary changes.

  • Blood sugar monitoring

Checking your blood sugar regularly is essential to know if your blood sugar is staying within your target range or not. 

Check your blood sugar four to eight times a day and write it down. Monitor your sugar levels closely. The A1C test is the best test for measuring blood sugar levels.

  • Insulin therapy

People with type 1 diabetes need insulin therapy. Some people with type 2 diabetes also require insulin therapy. 

The pancreas makes very little or no insulin in people with type 1 diabetes, so they need insulin therapy. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin does not work properly, they only need insulin therapy. 

Insulin must be injected directly into the bloodstream using an injection, an insulin pump, and pre-filled syringes.

  • Medicines

Oral medications are available to treat type 2 diabetes. These drugs stimulate the pancreas to produce and secrete more insulin. 

Medication is useful for those diabetic patients who still have some ability to produce insulin in the pancreas. Tablets and injections are available for type 2 diabetes.

  • Diet

Diet plays an important role in diabetes management. Many diabetics control their diabetes through diet. 

A balanced, nutritious and low-fat diet controls blood sugar levels. People with type 2 diabetes usually eat a diet to control their sugar levels.

  • Physical activity

Physical activity not only helps you maintain a healthy weight, but it also helps you manage diabetes. Exercise regularly and also try aerobic exercise.

Prevention of Diabetes

There is no permanent cure for diabetes. Procedures and medications are available to control blood sugar levels. 

Diabetes is a lifelong disease. You need to manage your diabetes throughout your life by maintaining normal blood sugar levels. So, diabetes prevention is better.

Can diabetes be prevented?

Yes, you can prevent type 2 diabetes. There are usually three types of diabetes such as diabetes 1, 2, and gestational diabetes. 

Most people have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is preventable. But you cannot prevent type 1 diabetes or avoid a healthy lifestyle.

Once you develop diabetes, you will need to be treated for life. So, it’s best to reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes through a healthy lifestyle.

  • Exercise: Aim to get at least 30 minutes of physical activity every day to reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Regular exercise and physical activity not only help prevent diabetes, but also provide many health benefits.

  • Diet: Eating a healthy diet also helps prevent diabetes. Eat foods that are low in fat and calories and high in fiber. Also include fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in your diet. Avoid sugar drinks. People who drink sugar beverages daily have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Replace sugar drinks with water, coffee, or tea.

  • Control Your Weight: Maintain a healthy weight through exercise and diet. If you are overweight, it is best to lose weight naturally. Being overweight or obese is one of the leading causes of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight increases the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes by 20-40%. So, maintain a healthy weight to lower your risk of diabetes.

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