There are different Types of Soil, each of which has a different effect on the plants that grow on them. Soil is the outer level of the earth, which forms the “skin” of the earth.
Many things are part of the soil, including hardened rocks, dead organic matter such as the remains of vegetables and creatures that once roamed the Earth. It is almost like an ocean in the sense that a whole world of dead creatures lives beneath the surface.
However, what you see today did not come about overnight; the soil is the result of many years of natural forces such as erosion.
When we create a soil taxonomy, we are actually classifying the different contents of the very surface layer of the earth.
In this taxonomy, geologists distinguish six main Types of Soil:
1. Fine-grained soil
Fine-grained soil has tiny hard “rocks” and they stick together. Usually fine-grained soil is clayey. Because it is very tightly packed, it does not allow air pockets to form while retaining high levels of moisture.
All this moisture contributes to root rot in plants. Farmers and gardeners hate this soil because it requires a lot of extra work.
2. Granular soil
Of all soil types, this has the largest constituents, as it is mainly composed of tiny stones. The typical soil type that falls into this category is sand.
Granular soil passes the greatest amount of air and water through it. Nature creates a granular soil by breaking down rocks such as granite, limestone, quartz and shale.
Granular soil is best for cultivation when natural nutrients are embedded in it, but even so, the inability of granular soil to hold water in warm weather makes it difficult for plants to grow on it.
If you are trying to grow a plant in granular soil, be sure to increase the amount of watering so that the plant does not dehydrate.
An additional benefit of granular soil is that it creates a natural immunization against root rot by preventing water from staying close to the roots.
3. Rich silt
Rich silt is the golden mean between fine-grained and granular soil. Often contains quartz and other organic matter. It is a somewhat sandy soil, but with more nutrients than granular soil. It contains more water than grainy soil, so it is also better for farmers to work with.
4. Tri-part soil
Tri-part soil is a mixture of fine-grained, grainy and rich silty soils. This mixture makes it the best soil for growing plants.
Of all soil types, it is closest to the ideal balance of water storage and drainage. You can find a range of Tri-part soils, from silty, bordering on fine-grained clay, to sod, which looks more like granular.
5. Marshy soil
Of all soil types, marshy soil contains the most organic matter. In fact, it consists of lifeless plant, animal and insect detritus.
This is the soil that makes up swamps and marshes. People often call this soil “peat”. The level of acids in peat does not allow the carcasses of plants and animals to be completely absorbed by the earth.
Typically, such soils are found in more rainy parts of the world. Although there are types of organic matter typical of high nutrient soils, nutrients are lacking in this soil.
Growing difficulties are aggravated by root rot resulting from excessive moisture. However, farmers can work this soil with great difficulty.
6. Chalky soil
Chalk soil is the opposite of swampy soil, as it is alkaline and consists of a lot of stones. In warm weather, it becomes too dry to grow. High levels of iron and magnesium further complicate the situation as it prevents plants from absorbing the nutrients they need.
While most of the plants we generally consider gardening tend to work best for ternary soil, there are other types of plants, such as desert ones, that will grow much better in other soils.
Much depends on where the plant came from and on what soil it thrived in these places.
Types of Soil Conditions
Soil is an important economic and natural resource. It tends to vary in structure and composition. It consists of three main components: minerals that come from under rocks, living organisms that live in the soil, and organic matter, which are the remains of plants and animals that use it.
Soils are mainly of three states: clayey, oil-bearing and silty.
- Clay Soil
Clay Soil particles tend to be tiny and compact. Gardens that contain such soil particles do not perform well as air is difficult to reach the routes. The soil absorbs, retains water and leads to drainage problems. This is bad for the growth of plants and their roots.
- Sandy Soil
On the other hand, sandy soil particles are large. Water and nutrients are removed from the root zone of the plant in a short period of time. This is the complete opposite of clay soil.
- Slit Soil
Silt soil contains clay particles. Like clay, it can hold water. However, it does not provide good root aeration. You can turn any of these soils into open, loamy, aerated soil. It will retain water and nutrients needed for the plant to grow properly. You can also improve water drainage by deep plowing over several years. In clay soil, it will break a hard pan.
How Many Soil Types in India?
From an Indian perspective, there are six Different Types of Soils found: alluvial, red, desert, mountainous, lateritic, and black.
- Alluvial soil
Alluvial soils are formed as a result of the decomposition of sediment by rivers. They are very fertile and have a high humus content. They are mainly found in the lower valleys of the Narmada and Tapti in Gujarat and in the Great Northern Plain. They are updated every year.
- Red Soil
The red soil is formed by the wear of the ancient metamorphic rocks of the Deccan plateau. They are red due to their lower iron content than brown or yellow soil. This soil is found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and parts of Odisha.
- Mountain Soil
Mountain soils are created by collecting organic matter from the growth of forests. This soil is found in the Himalayan region and tends to change with altitude. Tea grows in these regions due to sufficient rainfall.
- Desert Soil
Desert soil is mainly found in areas of Rajasthan. Because evaporation exceeds rainfall, desert soil is highly saline and has a salty layer that creates a hard crust. This type of soil is sandy and contains no organic matter.
- Lateritic Soil
Lateritic soils are created by intense leaching and occur on hilltops and uplands. This type of soil is commonly found in Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and the hilly regions of Odisha and Assam.
- Black Soil
Black soils are created from the flow of lava and volcanic rocks. It is mainly found in the Deccan lava tract, which includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It contains iron, magnesium, potash and lime, but lacks nitrogen, organic matter and phosphorus.
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