4 Different Types of Gynecologists Explained for Your Help

Here we will discuss the Different Types of Gynecologists in this article. A gynecologist is a surgeon whose major area of specialization is the treatment of diseases related to women’s health and the female genital tract. 

Gynecologists usually treat diseases related to the fallopian tube, uterus (womb), ovaries, cervix (the womb’s opening), vagina and vulva (external female genital organs). Gynecologists also handle problems related to menstruation, sexuality, contraception, infertility and menopause. 

What is a Gynecologist? 

Different Types of Gynecologists

A gynecologist is a medical doctor that diagnoses and treats a woman’s reproductive and sexual organs which include the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The gynecologist also performs breast examinations. 

The gynecologist is often called an OBGYN doctor because both obstetrics and gynecology are often practiced together. 

The gynecologist will diagnose endometrial cancer, prolapsed bladder, dysmenorrhea (painful periods), pelvic pain, excessive vaginal bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, endometriosis and other complaints having to do with the female reproductive and genitourinary systems.

Different Types of Gynecologists

There are four Different Types of Gynecologists. Here we will discuss about the various Types of Gynecologists below in this article: –

1. Obstetrician

These Types of Gynecologists are experts in prenatal care and pregnancy management. They also perform the diagnosis and treatment of reproductive disorders in women. 

Obstetricians also offer pap test screening, preventive care and detect sexually transmitted diseases. Students who are interested in this field undergo training as a gynecologist and obstetrician at the same time. 

As part of the training, they also work in gynecology, reproductive endocrinology, gynecologic oncology, obstetrics, preventive and primary care.

Resident education in obstetrics-gynecology needs to include four years of clinically focused, accredited medical education at the graduate level in the areas of reproductive health care as well as ambulatory primary health for women such as disease prevention, treatment, consultation, referral, and diagnosis and health maintenance.

What is an Obstetrician?

An obstetrician is a physician who specializes in the management of pregnancy, labor and delivery. Obstetricians take care of pregnant women from conception through giving birth and post-natal care. 

In addition, they have knowledge of the female reproductive structure and surgical care, they are also called an OBGYN.

Pregnancy can be one of the most treasured and happiest times in a woman’s life. A safe and normal pregnancy with few or no cases of complications occurs in the majority of pregnancies. 

Some women, however, face problems during this time. Women may have pelvic pain during pregnancy, a high-risk pregnancy, or complications with labor and delivery but with the help of an obstetrician, these problems can be effectively handled. So, what is an obstetrician?

Obstetricians see their patients for health consultations, ultrasounds, pregnancy tests, and many of the patient’s prenatal medical needs including forming an effective birth plan. What does an obstetrician do?

  • They diagnose, identify and treat complications related to pregnancy.  This includes examining their patients regularly and recommending medication or surgery when necessary.


  • They advise their patients on healthy living throughout their entire pregnancy period and during post-natal meetings. They advise patients on healthy diets that should be followed and physical activities that should be avoided.


  • They counsel their patients on various birth control methods and other diseases such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, and sexually transmitted diseases.


  • They take pregnancy related tests and discuss the results with their patients and assist mothers in understanding pregnancy and development stages of the baby.


  • They ensure safe delivery of the baby; they perform caesarean sections and other surgical procedures.


  • They work in areas of fetal health problems and high-risk pregnancies and counsel patients on the same. In critical cases, they refer the patients to other specialists


  • Help to deliver the infant safely and preserve the patient’s health.


  • Perform tests on newborns to ensure they are healthy or respond to any problem that may occur.

They also maintain medical records for future reference and preserving the case history of patients.

To ensure effective patient care, the obstetrician works with other doctors to develop programs that reduce pregnancy related problems and disease.

2. Gynecologic Oncologist

Students specializing in this branch of gynecology have to complete a four-year residency and clinical fellowship. 

The period of fellowship can vary between two to four years, during which gynecologic oncologists learn surgical skills that are part of their specialization in treating cancer in reproductive organs. 

The major surgical skills that a gynecologic oncologist needs to have includes urological surgery, gastrointestinal surgery and radical pelvic surgery. 

Students who specialize in this type of medicine treat different types of cancer in the female reproductive system such as uterine cancer, vulvar cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer and ovarian cancer. 

As a student of this field, one needs to undergo extensive training to diagnose and treat these types of cancers.

3. Urogynecologist

Urogynecologists need to graduate from a medical school and finish four years of residency in gynecology and obstetrics. 

After residency, added surgical training continues to help students gain expertise in assessment and treatment of women suffering from pelvic floor disorder. 

Pelvic floor includes ligaments, muscles, nerves and connective tissues which support the bladder, rectum, vagina and uterus. 

The pelvic floor can be damaged by regular heavy lifting, chronic disease and childbirth. Urogynecologists treat disorders in pelvic floor either through reconstructive surgery or by nonsurgical means. 

Women suffering from pelvic floor disorders like pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence are treated by urogynecologists. 

Ladies who need special care for issues related to vaginal mesh procedures are also treated by them.

4. Reproductive Endocrinologist 

A reproductive endocrinologist specializes in treating reproductive disorders such as infertility, and some of their patients include men. 

Apart from having the same education and medical requirements as an Obstetrician/ Gynecologist, students specializing in this field need to complete a two- or three-year clinical fellowship in reproductive endocrinology. 

A reproductive endocrinologist specializes in treating hormonal disorders, pregnancy loss, menopause, menstrual problems and infertility.

What does a Gynecologist do?

What is a gynecologist? A gynecologist performs vaginal surgery, D and C procedure, and hysterectomies. There are gynecologists that specialize in gynecologic oncology (cancer) and others in robotic surgery. 

The gynecologists diagnose endometrial cancer symptoms such as bleeding between periods and bleeding after menopause and pelvic pain. 

Endometriosis symptoms such as dysmenorrhea (very painful periods), infertility, painful urination and bowel movements, diarrhea, nausea, constipation, heavy bleeding during and between periods, and painful intercourse are diagnosed by the gynecologist. 

A gynecologist also diagnoses and treats fibroids, also known as myomas, which are noncancerous growths on the surface of the uterus and in the wall of the uterus. 

In most cases uterine fibroids do not have to be treated, however if they cause pain or bleeding, they may be removed surgically. 

Gynecologists will diagnose uterine fibroids with a vaginal ultrasound study, MRI, and/or a hysteroscopy to confirm the number, location and size of the uterine fibroids. 

What is a gynecologist? When assessing your gynecologist their credentials, reputation, attention to detail, associates, facilities, along with a great one to one experience can help you to determine the doctor(s) with the best obstetrics and gynecology practice for your future. 

What is a gynecologist looking for in an exam? The gynecologist will take your medical history and inform you about signs and symptoms that women experience and explain many different subjects such as what is PMS, dysmenorrhea, obstetrics and gynecology, signs of early pregnancy, STDs, contraception, performing a breast self-exam, and to answer any questions that you may have. 

On the first visit to the gynecologist it may be necessary that you have a pelvic exam.

What is a gynecologist looking for in a Pap smear? Gynecologists will take a Pap smear several years after the first sexual intercourse or when you reach the age of 21. The Pap smear is a short exam (15 minutes) where you lay back with your knees bent and your legs/heels are in stirrups and the gynecologist places a speculum into the vagina and gently spreads it open to see the cervix. 

The gynecologist will then swab the surface of the cervix and have the specimen analyzed. In the majority of cases there are no abnormal cells present however some Pap tests come back with inconclusive results and an even smaller number of tests come back with a positive result for cervical cancer. 

When inconclusive results come back the gynecologist will schedule you for a colposcopy in the office. The colposcope is a microscope that can view the surface of the vulva, vagina and cervix without entering the vagina. 

It is performed in the same position as the Pap smear using the speculum with the gynecologist aiming a light on the surface of the cervix, vagina, and vulva to determine any abnormal cells and tissue. 

The colposcopy takes about 15 minutes and you can go home immediately following your exam and consultation. The Pap smear itself is performed every two to three years to catch cervical cancer early.

What is a gynecologist looking for in a D and C procedure? A Dilation and curettage are performed as a diagnostic procedure to scrap off the surface of the uterus (the endometrium) to test for uterine cancer, polyps, and determine if the endometrium lining has become very thick. 

The gynecologist may suggest that you have a D&C procedure when the Pap smear or colposcopy results indicate abnormal endometrial cells are present or you have bleeding after menopause, unusual uterine bleeding, or dysmenorrhea (painful cramps). 

A D and C procedure may also be used as a therapeutic procedure. Besides the endometrium lining being removed with a curette other tissue may be removed during a D and C procedure such as a molar pregnancy, polyps, tissue that may remain after a miscarriage, fibroids, and any placenta that may still remain. 

The D and C procedure can help to stop excessive bleeding, infection, abnormal tissue growth and clear out the uterus for a future pregnancy. 

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